SEPARATION-INDIVIDUATION THEORY OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT (MAHLER)

Summary: Mahler describes a series of stages occurring within the first three years of life aimed at the developmental goal of Separation and Individuation. Originator: Margaret Mahler (1897-1985), a Hungarian-born American psychiatrist Keywords: Separation-Individuation, Ego psychology, Developmental...

COGNITIVE TOOLS THEORY (EGAN)

Summary: There exist five kinds of understanding (or cognitive tools) that individuals usually master in a particular order during the course of their development; these have important educational implications. Originator: Kieran Egan, a Professor at...

MONTESSORI METHOD (MONTESSORI)

Summary: The Montessori Method is an approach to learning which emphasizes active learning, independence, cooperation, and learning in harmony with each child’s unique pace of development. Originator: Maria Montessori (1870-1952), Italian teacher and physician Keywords: absorbent mind, sensitive period,...

IVANS PAVLOV’s EXPERIMENT WITH DOGS

Like many great scientific advances, Pavlovian conditioning (aka classical conditioning) was discovered accidentally. During the 1890s, Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov was looking at salivation in dogs in response to being fed when he noticed that...

SKINNER – OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY

By the 1920s, John B. Watson had left academic psychology, and other behaviorists were becoming influential, proposing new forms of learning other than classical conditioning. Perhaps the most important of these was Burrhus Frederic Skinner. Although, for...

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING THEORY

Behaviorism as a movement in psychology appeared in 1913 when John Broadus Watson published the classic article psychology as the behaviorist views it. John Watson proposed that the process of classical conditioning (based on Pavlov’s observations)...

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY (BANDURA)

Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention,...

MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (often represented as a pyramid with five levels of needs) is a motivational theory in psychology that argues that while people aim to meet basic needs, they seek to meet...

ERIKSON’S STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

An eight stage theory of identity and psychosocial development. Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalyst heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud, explored three aspects of identity: the ego identity (self), personal identity (the personal idiosyncrasies that distinguish...

TRENDING RIGHT NOW

error: Content is protected !!